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Due to the increasing popularity of digital transmission systems, the need for channel equalizers has been acknowledged. These techniques are designed to counteract the effects of the inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by the communication channels. An adaptive equalizer is used to operate on the output of a channel in order to provide an approximation of the transmission medium. An adaptive equalizer usually requires a training period to operate successfully. This method eliminates the effects of the wireless transmission channel and allows the subsequent symbol modulation. The paper presents an overview of the various adaptive equalizers, such as the least mean squares (LMS), decision feedback equalizers (DFE), and the Recursive least squares (RLS). It also explores their performance in terms of error vector magnitudes (EVM) over Rician and Rayleigh channels. The paper looks into the effects of adaptive equalizers on various digital modulation techniques for rectangular quadrature phase shift, amplitude modulation, such as the BPSK, QPSK, 4-QAM, 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM. These modulations are analysed and measured in terms of symbol error rates and number of incorrect symbols.
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