Enhanced Quantum Key Distribution Algorithm for Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Network

Main Article Content

Pooja Ashok Shelar
Parikshit Narendra Mahalle
Gitanjali Rahul Shinde
Namrata N. Wasatkar


The research aims to develop an attack-free underwater optical communication channel at a distance of 50 meters. In this work, we have emphasized the importance of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) in Naval and many other applications. An in-detail study of the Benette Brassard QKD protocol proposed in 1984 [BB84] is done with its implementation. Then as the next step, we analyzed the drawbacks of BB84 and the necessity of QKD in Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks [UO-WSN]. As a solution, to identified problems, we have proposed the Enhanced BB84 protocol (EBB84) with considerations of its usage in the UO-WSN. The results showed that the EBB84 algorithm is best suitable algorithm for the underwater environment.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shelar, P. A. ., Mahalle, P. N. ., Shinde, G. R. ., & Wasatkar, N. N. . (2023). Enhanced Quantum Key Distribution Algorithm for Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Network. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, 11(7s), 392–407. https://doi.org/10.17762/ijritcc.v11i7s.7015


Parikshit N. Mahalle, et.al., “The underwater world for digital data transmission”, Springer, 2021.

Meiwei Kong, et.al. ,“Underwater Optical wireless sensor network for real-time underwater environmental monitoring”, Volume 1028,Next Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems,San Francisco, California,United States,2022.

John Robert Potter, “The JANUS underwater communications standard”, IEEE OES UComms 14 Underwater Communications Networking Conference,2014.

Irfan Ahmad, et.al. ,“ Underwater Wireless Communications and Networks”, Hindawi,2021.


Ivan Djordjevic, “ Quantum Mechanics Fundamentals”, Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction, 2012.

Mehrdad S. Sharbaf , “Quantum Cryptography: A New Generation of Information Technology Security System”, IEEE, Sixth International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations,2009

Jeffrey Bub , “QUANTUM INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION”, Science Direct, Philosophy of Physics,2007

Bharadwaj V. Srividya et.al., “An Emphasis on Quantum Cryptography and Quantum Key Distribution”, IntechOpen 2020.

Vimal Gaur, et al. ,“Quantum Key Distribution: Attacks and Solutions”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Computing & Communications,2020.

Mohamad Ali Khalighi, “Underwater wireless optical communication; recent advances and remaining challenges”, IEEE, 2014.

Secure Communication in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks using Quantum Key Distribution" by J. Xu and W. Jia, published in IEEE Access in 2019.

"Quantum key distribution for underwater acoustic sensor networks" by Z. Yu, H. Chen, and J. Ma, published in Optics Express in 2019.

Quantum key distribution for underwater acoustic sensor networks: A review" by Y. Xu, W. Yan, and X. Hu, published in Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics in 2018.

"Underwater Quantum Key Distribution in the Presence of Noise and Turbulence" by Shijun Zheng, Jie Lin, and Shilin Xiao, published in IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2019.

A Hybrid Quantum Key Distribution Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks" by Xinxin Zhang, Huanyang Zheng, and Wenjun Sun, published in IEEE Access, 2021.

Security Analysis of Quantum Key Distribution in Underwater Sensor Networks" by Tarek Gaber, Mohamed E. El-Hawary, and Hossam S. Hassanein, published in IEEE Sensors Journal, 2018.

Yanfeng Wang, Qi Wu, and Zhiping Jiang,” Quantum Key Distribution in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks with Energy Harvesting Nodes", Sensors, 2021.

R. F. Rice et al. ,Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Key Distribution over a 1.9 km Outdoor Optical Wireless Communication Channel", 2012

Auma, G., Goldberg, R., Oliveira, A., Seo-joon, C., & Nakamura, E. Enhancing Sentiment Analysis Using Transfer Learning Techniques. Kuwait Journal of Machine Learning, 1(3). Retrieved from http://kuwaitjournals.com/index.php/kjml/article/view/129

C. Capella et al. , Quantum Key Distribution in Underwater Wireless Optical Channels: Experimental Demonstration",2014.

H. Liang et al. , “Secure Quantum Key Distribution for Underwater Wireless Optical Communication" ,2016.

H. Wang et al. ,"Performance Analysis of Quantum Key Distribution over Underwater Wireless Optical Channels", 2020.

X. Sun, et al., "Quantum Key Distribution in Underwater Wireless Optical Channels: An Overview" ,2019.

Y. Li, et al. ,"Experimental demonstration of quantum key distribution in underwater wireless optical communication",2020.

zhao feng, et al., “Experimental underwater quantum key distribution and decoy-state quantum key distribution”, Optics Express , 2021.

Shi-Cheng Zhao ,” Performance of underwater quantum key distribution with polarization encoding”, Journal of the Optical Society of America, 2019.

Khalighi M. A. et al. ,"Quantum Key Distribution over Underwater Wireless Optical Channels" ,2011.

Mahsa Sharifzadeh, Mahsa Ahmadirad , “ Performance analysis of underwater wireless optical communication systems over a wide range of optical turbulence”, Optics Communications,2018.

Yi-Hua Zhou , et al., “Mode-pairing quantum key distribution based on pulse-position modulation”, Optik,Elsevier,2023.

Yicheng Shi , et al., “Stable Polarization Entanglement based Quantum Key Distribution over Metropolitan Fibre Network”,IEEE,2020.

Qi-Hang Lu, “Quantum Key Distribution Over a Channel with Scattering”, American Physical Society,2022.

Zhiwei Tao, et al., “Mitigating the effect of atmospheric turbulence on orbital angular momentum-based quantum key distribution using real-time adaptive optics with phase unwrapping”, Optic Express,2021.

Vishal Sharma, “Effect of Noise on Practical Quantum Communication Systems”, Defence Science Journal,2016.

G.S. Buller, et al., “ Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution”, IET Optoelectronics, IEEE,2008.

Anton Trushechkin ,et al., “Security of the decoy state method for quantum key distribution”, Physics-Uspekhi,2021.

Zhu Chang Hua , et al.,“A New Quantum Key Distribution Scheme Based on Frequency and Time Coding”, Chinese Physics Letters,2010.

Pietro Paglierani, et al. “ A tutorial on Underwater Quantum Key distribution”, IEEE,2023.

Ansari , A. S. . (2023). Numerical Simulation and Development of Brain Tumor Segmentation and Classification of Brain Tumor Using Improved Support Vector Machine. International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering, 11(2s), 35–44. Retrieved from https://ijisae.org/index.php/IJISAE/article/view/2505

Silvia Tarantino, et al., “Feasibility study of Quantum Communications in Aquatic Scenarios”,Optik,2020.

Y. Chen, H. Fu, and L. Wang ,"Quantum key distribution for underwater optical wireless communication: a review" ,Journal of Optics in 2019.

Dr. M. Varadharaj. (2019). Density Based Traffic Control System with Smart Sensing Of Emergency Vehicles. International Journal of New Practices in Management and Engineering, 8(02), 01 - 07. https://doi.org/10.17762/ijnpme.v8i02.75

C. Qiao, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhang, "A Novel Quantum Key Distribution Scheme for Underwater Wireless Optical Communication" ,IEEE Transactions on Communications in 2018.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, and J. Song, "Security Enhancement of Underwater Wireless Optical Communication via Quantum Key Distribution" Journal of Lightwave Technology in 2019.

Liang Yang ,et al., “On the Performance of Mixed FSO-UWOC Dual-Hop Transmission Systems”, IEEE Wireless Communication Letters,2021.

Warren P. Grice, et al., “Quantum secret sharing using weak coherent states”, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information,2019.

Bennett CH, Brassard G , “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing”, IEEE Conference on Computer, Systems and signal Processing, 1984.

Ekert. A, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 ,1991.

Charles H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121,1992.

Valerio Scarani, et al. ,“Quantum Cryptography Protocols Robust against Photon Number Splitting Attacks for Weak Laser Pulse Implementations”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901,2004.

Kyo Inoue, Edo Waks, and Yoshihisa Yamamoto, Differential Phase Shift Quantum Key Distribution, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 ,2002.

Lo, H.-K., Curty, M. & Qi, B. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 ,2012.

Wang, X.-B., Yu, Z.-W. & Hu, X.-L. Twin-field quantum key distribution with large misalignment error. Phys. Rev. A 98, 062323,2018.

Shor and Preskill, “Simple Proof of Security of the BB84 Quantum Key Distribution Protocol”, Physical Review Letters, 85 ,2000.