Main Article Content
The IT industry has faced many challenges related to software effort and cost estimation. A cost assessment is conducted after software effort estimation, which benefits customers as well as developers. The purpose of this paper is to discuss various methods for the estimation of software effort and cost in the context of software engineering, such as algorithmic methods, expert judgment methods, analogy-based estimation methods, and machine learning methods, as well as their different aspects. In spite of this, estimation of the effort involved in software development are subject to uncertainty. Several methods have been developed in the literature for improving estimation accuracy, many of which involve the use of machine learning techniques. A machine learning framework is proposed in this paper to address this challenging problem. In addition to being completely independent of algorithmic models and estimation problems, this framework also features a modular architecture. It has high interpretability, learning capability, and robustness to imprecise and uncertain inputs.
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