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The shift from traditional to digital learning platforms has highlighted the need for more personalized and engaging student experiences. In response, researchers are investigating AI algorithms' ability to predict and improve e-learning student engagement. Machine Learning (ML) methods like Decision Trees, Support Vector Machines, and Deep Learning models can predict student engagement using variables like interaction patterns, learning behavior, and academic performance. These AI algorithms have identified at-risk students, enabling early interventions and personalized learning. By providing adaptive content, personalized feedback, and immersive learning environments, some AI methods have increased student engagement. Despite these advances, data privacy, unstructured data, and transparent and interpretable models remain challenges. The review concludes that AI has great potential to improve e-learning outcomes, but these challenges must be addressed for ethical and effective applications. Future research should develop more robust and interpretable AI models, multidimensional engagement metrics, and more comprehensive studies on AI's ethical implications in education.
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