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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have the potential to play a significant role in forest fire detection and prevention. However, limited resources, such as short battery life pose challenges for the energy efficiency and longevity of WSN-based IoT networks. This paper focused on the energy efficiency aspect and proposed the ECP-LEACH protocol to optimize energy consumption in forest fire detection cases. The proposed protocol consists of two main components: a threshold monitoring module and a sleep scheduling module. The threshold monitoring module continuously monitors energy consumption and triggers sleep mode for nodes surpassing the predetermined threshold. The ECP-LEACH protocol offers a promising solution for improving energy efficiency in WSN-based IoT networks for forest fire detection. By optimizing sleep scheduling and duty cycles, the ECP-LEACH protocol enables significant energy savings and extended network lifetime
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