Developing a Scale to Measure Student Quality of Life in an Online Learning Set Up in the Pandemic Context

Main Article Content

Exequiel R. Gono Jr.
Maribel B. Abalos


The COVID-19 pandemic brought many challenges to the student's quality of life. The University of Mindanao should develop an intervention program anchored to the new dimensions of students' quality of life. This study aims to create a scale on students' quality of life. Using a mixed-method research design, the researchers interviewed 13 students about students quality of life. The output of the interview, as well as the readings of related literature, became the basis of the Item Pool Statements (IPS). The IPS was evaluated by ten experts using Lawshe's method of Content Validation. The researchers collected 595 observations for Exploratory Factor Analysis and 3978 observations for Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The exploratory factor analysis extracted five factors: life vitality, emotional well-being, academic struggles, learning environment, financial well-being, and learning modality. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to confirm further the measures of students' quality of life in the pandemic context. It was found that there is a significant relationship with the construct (factors). There is a high internal consistency and convergent validity of each construct. In addition, the ?2/df= 2.087, CFI=.962, TLI = 0.970, and RMSEA= .048 (p close = 0.650) are fitted to the level of acceptance; thus the model is fit.

Article Details

How to Cite
Gono Jr., E. R. ., and M. B. . Abalos. “Developing a Scale to Measure Student Quality of Life in an Online Learning Set Up in the Pandemic Context”. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, vol. 11, no. 5s, May 2023, pp. 230-8, doi:10.17762/ijritcc.v11i5s.6649.


Verma, S., & Gustafsson, A. (2020). Investigating the emerging COVID-19 research trends in the field of business and management: A bibliometric analysis approach. Journal of Business Research, 118, 253-261.

Jena, P. K. (2020). Impact of pandemic COVID-19 on education in India. International journal of current research (IJCR), p. 12.

Giorgi, G., Lecca, L. I., Alessio, F., Finstad, G. L., Bondanini, G., Lulli, L. G., ... & Mucci, N. (2020). COVID-19-related mental health effects in the workplace: a narrative review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(21), 7857.

Maia, B. R., & Dias, P. C. (2020). Anxiety, depression, and stress in university students: the impact of COVID-19. Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas), 37.

Guo, K., Zhang, X., Bai, S., Minhat, H. S., Nazan, A. I. N. M., Feng, J., ... & Saliluddin, S. (2021). Assessing social support impact on depression, anxiety, and stress among undergraduate students in Shaanxi province during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. PLoS One, 16(7), e0253891.

Visser, M., & Law-van Wyk, E. (2021). University students' mental health and emotional well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing lockdown. South African Journal of Psychology, 51(2), 229-243.

Irawan, A. W., Dwisona, D., & Lestari, M. (2020). Psychological impacts of students on online learning during the pandemic COVID-19. KONSELI: Jurnal Bimbingan dan Konseling (E-Journal), 7(1), 53-60.

AlHadi, A. N., & Alhuwaydi, A. M. (2021). The mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis on university students in Saudi Arabia and associated factors. Journal of American College Health, 1-9.

Guyatt, G. H., Feeny, D. H., & Patrick, D. L. (1993). Measuring health-related quality of life. Annals of internal medicine, 118(8), 622–629.

Grande, R. A. N., Butcon, V. E. R., Indonto, M. C. L., Villacorte, L. M., & Berdida, D. J. E. (2021). Quality of life of nursing internship students in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, 14, 100301.

Chun-Hsia Huang, Tze-Fang Wang, Fu-In Tang, I-Ju Chen, Shu Yu, (2017). Development and validation of a Quality of Life Scale for elementary school students, International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 180-191, ISSN 1697-2600,

Sirgy, M. & Grzeskowiak, Stephan & Rahtz, Don. (2007). Quality of College Life (QCL) of Students: Developing and Validating a Measure of Well-Being. Social Indicators Research. 80. 343-360. 10.1007s11205-005-5921-9.

Zhang, Y., Qu, B., Lun, S., Wang, D., Guo, Y., & Liu, J. (2012). Quality of life of medical students in China: a study using the WHOQOL-BREF. PloS one, 7(11), e49714.

Forman, J., Creswell, J. W., Damschroder, L., Kowalski, C. P., & Krein, S. L. (2008). Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research. American journal of infection control, 36(10), 764-771.

Ferguson, E., & Cox, T. (1993). Exploratory factor analysis: A users' guide. International journal of selection and assessment, 1(2), 84–94.

Almalki, S. (2016). Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research--Challenges and Belanefits. Journal of education and learning, 5(3), 288-296.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Mapping the field of mixed methods research. Journal of mixed methods research, 3(2), 95-108.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Suhr, D. D. (2006). Exploratory or confirmatory factor analysis?.

Cronbach, L. J. (1989). Lee J. Cronbach.

El-Hassan K. (2014). Student Quality of Life. In: Michalos A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht. https:doi.org10.1007978-94-007-0753-5_2890

Malibary, H., Zagzoog, M.M., Banjari, M.A. et al. (2019). Quality of Life (QoL) among medical students in Saudi Arabia: a study using the WHOQOL-BREF instrument. BMC Med Educ 19, 344. https:doi.org10.1186s12909-019-1775-8

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology, 28(4), 563-575.

Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36.

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological bulletin, 103(3), 411.

Hoyle, R. H. (2000). Confirmatory factor analysis. In Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling (pp. 465–497). Academic Press.

Tanaka, J. S. (1993). Multifaceted conceptions of fit. Testing structural equation models, 10-39.

Cudeck, R., & Browne, M. W. (1983). Cross-validation of covariance structures. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 18(2), 147-167

Bollen, K. A., & Long, J. S. (Eds.). (1993). Testing structural equation models (Vol. 154). Sage

Garg, N., & Sarkar, A. (2020). Vitality among university students: exploring the role of gratitude and resilience. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance.

Carmeli, A., Peng, A. C., Schaubroeck, J. M., & Amir, I. (2021). Social support as a source of vitality among college students: The moderating role of social self?efficacy. Psychology in the Schools, 58(2), 351-363.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness. New York, NY: Guilford Press

Blackwell Jennifer, Miksza Peter, Evans Paul, McPherson Gary E. (2020). Student Vitality, Teacher Engagement, and Rapport in Studio Music Instruction. Frontiers in Psychology https:www.frontiersin.orgarticle10.3389fpsyg.2020.01007

Miksza, P., Evans, P., & McPherson, G. E. (2019). Wellness among university-level music students: a study of the predictors of subjective vitality. Musicae Sci. doi: 10.11771029864919860554

Miš?evi?, N. (2021). United nations development programme, human development report 2020. The next frontier human development and the anthropocene. Croatian Journal of Philosophy, 21(1 (61)), 231-235.

Bonke, J., & Browning, M. (2009). The distribution of financial well-being and income within the household. Review of Economics of the Household, 7, 31-42.

Brown, S., & Daniel Gray. (2016). "Household finances and well-being in Australia: An empirical analysis of comparison effects." Journal of Economic Psychology 53, 17-36

Schmeiser, Maximilian, and Jason Seligman. (2013). "Using the right yardstick: assessing financial literacy measures by way of financial well-being." Journal of Consumer Affairs 47(2), 243-62

Shim, S., Xiao, J. J., Barber, B. L., & Lyons, A. C. (2009). Pathways to life success: A conceptual model of financial well-being for young adults. Journal of applied developmental psychology, 30(6), 708-723.

Cohen, E., Clifton, R. A., & Roberts, L. W. (2001). The cognitive domain of the quality of life of university students: a re-analysis of an instrument. Social Indicators Research, 53(1), 63–77

Kirkøen, B., Engell, T., Follestad, I. B., Holen, S., & Hagen, K. A. (2021). Early academic struggles among children with home-based support from child welfare services. Children and Youth Services Review, 131, 106268.

Suldo, S. M., Riley, K. N., & Shaffer, E. J. (2006). Academic correlates of children and adolescents' life satisfaction. School Psychology International, 27(5), 567–582.

Benjamin, M. (1994). The quality of student life: Toward a coherent conceptualization. Social Indicators Research, 31, 205-264.

Kuo, Y. C., & Belland, B. R. (2016). An exploratory study of adult learners’ perceptions of online learning: Minority students in continuing education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64, 661-680.

Battalio, J. (2009). Success in distance education: Do learning styles and multiple formats matter?. The Amer. Jrnl. of Distance Education, 23(2), 71-87.