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The rapid advancement of networking technology has enabled small devices to have communication capabilities, but the current decentralized communication system is not ideal for heterogeneous networks like vehicular networks. The integration of routing, switching, and decision-making capabilities in the same network device limits innovation and impedes performance in decentralized networks, especially in vehicular networks where network topologies change frequently. To address the demands of such networks, Software-Defined Networking (SDN) provides a promising solution that supports innovation. However, SDN's single-controller-based system may restrict the network's operational capabilities, despite being programmable and flexible. This paper suggests two methods to tackle the complex problem of controller placement in SDN: an adaptable approach based on OpenFlow protocol in OpenNet and an evolutionary algorithm called Elite Opposition-Based Salp Swarm Algorithm (EO-SSA) to minimize propagation latency, load imbalance, and network resilience. Multiple controllers increase the network's capabilities and provide fault tolerance, but their placement requires a trade-off among various objectives. The proposed methods have been evaluated and analyzed to confirm their effectiveness. The current decentralized network system is not adequate for vehicular networks, and SDN offers a promising solution that supports innovation and can meet the current demands of such networks.
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