Decentralized Consensus Mechanisms in Blockchain: A Comparative Analysis

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Nirvikar Katiyar, Shekhar Verma, Manish Kumar, Pradeep Kumar, Deshraj Sahu


Blockchain technology relies on decentralized consensus mechanisms that allow distributed networks of nodes to agree on the state of a ledger without central coordination. This paper provides a comparative analysis of major consensus protocols utilized in blockchain systems, including proof-of-work (PoW), proof-of-stake (PoS), delegated proof-of-stake (DPoS), practical Byzantine fault tolerance (PBFT), and federated consensus. We analyze the core principles behind each mechanism, strengths and weaknesses in terms of security, scalability, energy efficiency, and decentralization. We also provide examples of major blockchain platforms utilizing these protocols. Our analysis finds that no consensus mechanism optimizes across all attributes, with inherent tradeoffs between decentralization, transaction throughput, energy use, and finality. Hybrid models are emerging which aim to balance these tradeoffs.

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How to Cite
Nirvikar Katiyar, et al. (2023). Decentralized Consensus Mechanisms in Blockchain: A Comparative Analysis. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, 11(11), 706–716.